The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) formally emerged from the first Conference of Heads of State and Government. It was held on September 1-6, 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, currently the Republic of Serbia, within a complex international context framed by the Cold War (confrontation between the geopolitical blocs – East/West), the breaking of the colonial system in the world and the emancipatory fight of the peoples of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean.
The establishment of this consultation mechanism and political agreement was promoted by the initiative of the political leaders: Josip Broz Tito (the President of Yugoslavia), Gamal Abdel Nasser (the President of Egypt), Jawaharlal Nehru (the Prime Minister of India), Ahmed Sukarno (the President of Indonesia) and Kwame Nkrumah (the President of Ghana).
This Summit was attended by 28 States (25 permanent members and 3 observers), mainly new independent States. In this meeting a Preparatory Conference was held in Cairo, Egypt, where the membership criteria was analyzed.
The main objectives of the non-aligned countries focused on supporting the self-determination of the peoples, the opposition to the apartheid, the non-adherence to multilateral military pacts, the struggle against imperialism in all its forms and manifestations, disarmament, non-interference in the internal affairs of States, the strengthening of the United Nations, the democratization of international relations, the socioeconomic development and the restructuring of the international economic system.